The people used to fast on the day of ‘Ashura’ before fasting in Ramadan was prescribed but when (the order of compulsory fasting in) Ramadan was revealed, it was up to one to fast on it (i.e. ‘Ashura’) or not.
Sahih Bukhari, Prophetic Commentary on the Qur’an (Tafseer of the Prophet), Vol. 6, Book 60, Hadith 29
Ibn Abbas was asked about observing of fast on the day of Ashura, whereupon he said:
I do not know Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) singling out any day’s fast and considering it more excellent than another, except this day (the day of Ashura) and this month, meaning the month of Ramadan.
Sahih Muslim, Book 6, Hadith 2524
It was narrated from ‘Ubaidullah that:
he heard Ibn ‘Abbas, when he was asked about the fast of ‘Ashura’ say: “I do not know that the Prophet fasted any day because of its virtue, except this day” meaning the month of Ramadan and the day of Ashura.
Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)
Sunan an-Nasa’i Vol. 3, Book 22, Hadith 2372
When the Prophet (ﷺ) arrived at Medina he found that the Jews observed fast on the day of ‘Ashura’. They were asked the reason for the fast. They replied, “This is the day when Allah caused Moses and the children of Israel to have victory over Pharaoh, so we fast on this day as a sign of glorifying it.” Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “We are closer to Moses than you.” Then he ordered that fasting on this day should be observed.
Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 5, Book 58, Hadith 279
The Prophet (ﷺ) observed the fast on the 10th of Muharram (‘Ashura), and ordered (Muslims) to fast on that day, but when the fasting of the month of Ramadan was prescribed, the fasting of the ‘Ashura’ was abandoned. `Abdullah did not use to fast on that day unless it coincided with his routine fasting by chance.
Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 116
(The tribe of) Quraish used to fast on the day of Ashura’ in the Pre-Islamic period, and then Allah’s Apostle ordered (Muslims) to fast on it till the fasting in the month of Ramadan was prescribed; whereupon the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “He who wants to fast (on ‘Ashura’) may fast, and he who does not want to fast may not fast.”
Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 117
“Ashura was a day that the Quraish used to fast during Jahiliyyah, and the Messenger of Allah used to fast it. But when (the fast of) Ramadan became obligatory, the Ramadan was the required and Ashura was left. So whoever wanted to, he fasted it, and whoever wanted to, he left it.”
Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)
Jami’ at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2, Book 3, Hadith 753
The day of ‘Ashura’ was considered as `Id day by the Jews. So the Prophet (ﷺ) ordered, “I recommend you (Muslims) to fast on this day.”
Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 3, Book 31, Hadith 223
It was narrated from Abu Qatadah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
“Fasting the day of ‘Ashura’, I hope, will expiate for the sins of the previous year.”
Sunan Ibn Majah, Book 7, Hadith 1810
‘Alqama reported that Ash’ath b. Qais went to Ibn Mas’udd while he was eating on the day of Ashura. Thereupon he said:
Abu Abd al-Rahman, it is the day of ‘Ashura (and you are eating). Upon this he said: Fast was observed on (this day) before the (fasting) in Ramadan was made obligatory, but when it was made obligatory, (fasting on the day of ‘Ashura) was abandoned. So if you are not fasting, then take food.
Sahih Muslim, Book 6, Hadith 2513
It was narrated that Hafsah said:
“There are four things which the Prophet never gave up: Fasting ‘Ashura’, (fasting during) the ten days, (fasting) three days of each month, and praying two Rak’ahs before Al-Ghadah (Fajr).”
Grade: Hasan (Darussalam)
Sunan an-Nasa’i, Vol. 3, Book 22, Hadith 2418