Desirable acts on the day of Eid

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The Sunnahs that the Muslim should observe on the day of Eid are as follows:

1 – Doing ghusl before going out to the prayer.

It was narrated in a sahih hadeeth in al-Muwatta’ and elsewhere that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to do ghusl on the day of al-Fitr before going out to the prayer-place in the morning. Al-Muwatta’ 428.

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said that the Muslims were unanimously agreed that it is mustahabb (recommended) to do ghusl for Eid prayer. The reason why it is mustahabb is the same reason as that for doing ghusl before Jumu’ah and other public gatherings. Rather on Eid the reason is even stronger.

2 – Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on Eid al-Adha:

Part of the etiquette is not to go out to pray on Eid al-Fitr until one has eaten some dates, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas ibn Maalik, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used not to go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates… of which he would eat an odd number. Al-Bukhaari, 953.

It is mustahabb to eat before going out to emphasize the fact that it is forbidden to fast on that day and to demonstrate that the fast has ended.

Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) suggested that the reason for that was so as to ward off the possibility of adding to the fast, and to hasten to obey the command of Allaah. Al-Fath, 2/446

Whoever does not have any dates may break his fast with anything that is permissible.

3 – Takbeer on the day of Eid

This is one of the greatest Sunnahs on the day of Eid because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him” [al-Baqarah 2:185]

It was narrated that al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: I asked al-Awzaa’i and Maalik ibn Anas about saying Takbeer out loud on the two Eids. They said, Yes, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to say it out loud on the day of al-Fitr until the imam came out (to lead the prayers).

It was narrated in a sahih report that ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami said, “They emphasized it more on the day of al-Fitr than the day of al-Adha.”. Wakee’ said, this refers to the takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 3/122/

Al-Daaraqutni and others narrated that on the morning of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, Ibn ‘Umar would strive hard in reciting takbeer until he came to the prayer place, then he would recite takbeer until the imam came out.

Saying takbeer when coming out of one’s house to the prayer place and until the imam came out was something that was well known among the salaf (early generations). This has been narrated by a number of scholars such as Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd a l-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi in Ahkaam al-Eidayn from a group of the salaf. For example, Naafi’ ibn Jubayr used to recite takbeer and was astonished that the people did not do so, and he said, “Why do you not recite takbeer?”

Ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri (may Allaah have mercy on him) used to say, “The people used to recite takbeer from the time they came out of their houses until the imam came in.”

The time for takbeer on Eid al-Fitr starts from the night before Eid until the imam enters to lead the Eid prayer.

Description of the takbeer:

It was narrated in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he used to recite takbeer during the days of tashreeq:

Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allah, wa Allahu akbar, Allah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise).

It was also narrated elsewhere by Ibn Abi Shaybah with the same isnad, but with the phrase “Allahu akbar” repeated three times.

4 – Offering congratulations

The etiquette of Eid also includes the congratulations and good wishes exchanged by people, no matter what the wording, such as saying to one another Taqabbala Allaah minna wa minkum (May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you” or “Eid mubaarak” and other permissible expressions of congratulations.

It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met one another on the day of Eid, they would say to one another, “May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you.”

Offering congratulations was something that was well known among the Sahaabah, and scholars such as Imam Ahmad and others allowed it. There is evidence which suggests that it is prescribed to offer congratulations and good wishes on special occasions, and that the Sahaabah congratulated one another when good things happened, such as when Allaah accepted the repentance of a man, they went and congratulated him for that, and so on.

Undoubtedly these congratulations are among the noble characteristics among the Muslims.

The least that may be said concerning the subject of congratulations is that you should return the greetings of those who congratulate you on Eid, and keep quiet if others keep quiet, as Imam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If anyone congratulates you, then respond, otherwise do not initiate it.

5 – Adorning oneself on the occasion of Eid.

It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that ‘Umar took a brocade cloak that was for sale in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, buy this and adorn yourself with it for Eid and for receiving the delegations.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him, “Rather this is the dress of one who has no share (of piety or of reward in the Hereafter)…” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 948.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) agreed with ‘Umar on the idea of adorning oneself for Eid, but he denounced him for choosing this cloak because it was made of silk.

It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a cloak which he would wear on the two Eids and on Fridays. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1756,

Al-Bayhaqi narrated with a saheeh isnaad that Ibn ‘Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid.

So a man should wear the best clothes that he has when going out for Eid.

With regard to women, they should avoid adorning themselves when they go out for Eid, because they are forbidden to show off their adornments to non-mahram men. It is also haraam for a woman who wants to go out to put on perfume or to expose men to temptation, because they are only going out for the purpose of worship.

6 – Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another.

It was narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: On the day of Eid, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to vary his route. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 986.

Do not ask about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble

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Allah says in Surah Al-Mai’dah (interpretation):

“O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble. But if you ask about them while the Quran is being revealed, they will be made plain to you. Allah has forgiven that, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.” — Quran 5:101

This verse forbade the believers to ask the Prophet about matters concerning which Allah had not said anything in His Book and had not said anything concerning them; splitting hairs and asking too many details about them might lead to them being prohibited, which would cause them hardship. It also forbade them to ask about things that were hidden from them and if they came to know about them it would upset them, such as how sound their attribution to their fathers was. And that indeed happened.

Al-Bukhaari (540) and Muslim (2359) narrated from Anas ibn Maalik that the Messenger of Allah came out when the sun had passed its zenith and led them in praying Dhuhr. Then he stood on the minbar and spoke of the Hour, and said that momentous events would occur during it. Then he said: “Whoever would like to ask about anything, let him ask; you will not ask me about anything but I will tell you about it, so long as I am standing here.” The people wept a great deal, and he kept saying: “Ask me.”

‘Abdullah ibn Hudhaafah as-Sahmi stood up and said: “Who is my father?” He said: “Your father is Hudhaafah.” Then he kept saying, “Ask me.” Then ‘Umar knelt up and said: “We are pleased with Allah as our Lord, Islam as our religion, and Muhammad as our Messenger.” [The Messenger of Allah] fell silent, then he said: “Paradise and Hell were shown to me just now, on this wall, and I have never seen anything as good (as what I saw in Paradise) or anything as evil (as what I saw in Hell).”

A number of things are known from this:

Firstly, the prohibition mentioned in the verse applies specifically to the time of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him), which was the time when Revelation was still coming down, unlike times that came after that. Hence this does not mean that we should not seek Islamic knowledge and learn that which will benefit us or that we need to know with regard to matters of this life and the hereafter.

Secondly, the things that they were forbidden to ask about were:

  1. Things that had no bearing on their actions and were of no benefit in religious terms
  2. Things that Islam said nothing about, out of mercy to people, not out of forgetfulness, because asking too many questions about that could lead to them being forbidden, which would cause hardship for people.
    • Al-Bukhaari (6745) and Muslim (4349) narrated that Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqaas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “One of the worst sins a Muslim could commit is asking about something that was not prohibited to the Muslims, but it became prohibited to them because of his asking.”
  3. Things that were unknown to those who asked about them, which if they were made plain to them would cause them trouble, as we have seen above in the hadeeth of ‘Abdullah ibn Hudhaafah.

Thirdly, with regard to matters that are connected to the explanation of a shariah ruling, Allah has instructed us to ask about them, as He says (interpretation): “So ask those who possess knowledge if you do not know.” — Quran 16:43

Umrah during Ramadan is equal to Hajj in reward

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Umm Ma’qil narrated that the Prophet said: “Umrah during Ramadan is equal to Hajj.” Graded Sahih by Al-Albani (Jami` at-Tirmidhi 939).

Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “(The performance of) ‘Umrah during Ramadan is equal to Hajj (pilgrimage).” Or said, “Equal to the performance of Hajj with me.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

“Equal to the performance of Hajj” means the return and reward to which Hajj is eligible. It does not mean that it will serve as a substitute for Hajj and absolve one from the need to perform it. This distinction of `Umrah in the month of Ramadan is perhaps for the reason, that in this way two acts of worship are combined at one time.

Greater reward awaits those who memorize the Quran and act upon it

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At-Tirmidhi (2914) and Abu Dawood (1464) narrated that ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “It will be said to the companion of the Qur’an: ‘Read, and ascend, and recite as you used to recite in the [previous] world, for your status will be according to the last verse that you recite.’”

Shaykh Muhammad Shams al-Haqq al-‘Azeemabaadi (may Allah have mercy on him) said [1]:

“It will be said”: i.e., when people are admitted to Paradise

“to the companion of the Qur’an” i.e., the one who consistently recites it and acts upon it, not the one who reads it and does not act upon it.

“Read and ascend” i.e., to the higher levels of Paradise or of closeness to Allah.””and recite” i.e., do not be hasty in your recitation in Paradise

“as you used to recite” that is, in your reading

“in the [previous] world”.

From this hadith, it may be understood that this greater reward will not be attained except by one who memorized the Qur’an and learned how to recite it properly and in a precise manner, as it should be done.

[1] ‘Awn al-Ma‘bood fi Sharh Sunan Abi Dawood (4/237).

Not a moment of this life should be wasted in the disobedience of Allah; One should always be conscious of his accountability to Him

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Abu Barzah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “Man’s feet will not move on the Day of Resurrection before he is asked about his life, how did he consume it, his knowledge, what did he do with it, his wealth, how did he earn it and how did he dispose of it, and about his body, how did he wear it out.”
[At-Tirmidhi].
Commentary:
1. This Hadith, first of all, highlights the importance and value of this transitory life, every breath of which is invaluable. Not a moment of it should, therefore, be wasted in the disobedience of Allah because one shall also be made to account for it.
2. Man shall also be answerable for his knowledge. Here, we find an inducement for acquiring religious knowledge because that alone is beneficial for him. He should make use of his knowledge for winning the pleasure of Allah. If he does not do that then he must think about the justification for not doing so. He must also think how he would be facing Allah on the Day of Resurrection.
3. The question in respect of wealth raised in this Hadith clearly shows that one should earn wealth by legitimate means only and spend it strictly in a lawful manner. If he takes to unfair means of income or squanders it, he will be sinful and required to account for the violation of the Divine injunctions.
4. One should protect his body from everything that is unlawful and force himself to submit to the Divine injunctions. When he is asked to account for neglecting them, it will be difficult for him to escape the consequences of accountability.
In short, this Hadith makes one conscious of the accountability so that one keeps it all the time in view so that he will be saved from humiliation on the Day of Resurrection. How nice would it really be if one bears the accountability of the Day of Resurrection always in mind!
[Riyad as-Saliheen, Book of Miscellany, Chapter 50, Hadith 407]

The more aware a Muslim is of Allah’s Magnificence, the greater shall be the terror in his heart for his punishment and hope of His Mercy

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Abu Dharr (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) said, “I see what you do not see and I hear what you do not hear; heaven has squeaked, and it has right to do so. By Him, in Whose Hand my soul is, there is not a space of four fingers in which there is not an angel who is prostrating his forehead before Allah, the Exalted. By Allah, if you knew what I know, you would laugh little, weep much, and you would not enjoy women in beds, but would go out to the open space beseeching Allah.”
[At-Tirmidhi].

Commentary:
1. This Hadith also highlights the importance of fear of Allah because the more awareness a Muslim has of the Majesty and Magnificence of Allah, the greater shall be the terror in his heart for His punishment and hope of His Mercy. With this state of mind, he will perform greater acts of obedience and abstain more rigidly from sins.

2. The Hadith also mentions the heaven teeming with angels who are all the time prostrating before Allah in worship. When this is the condition of the angels, who do not slack for a moment in the obedience of Allah, how important it is for man to worship Him because he is all the time violating commands of Allah. It is, therefore, incumbent on man to obey Allah and always seek His Help and Refuge.

[Riyad as-Saliheen, Book of Miscellany, Chapter 50, Hadith 406]

Allah describes the Qur’an

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{ Allah has sent down the Best Statement, a Book, its parts resembling each other, (and) oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it. Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah. That is the guidance of Allah. He guides therewith whom He wills; and whomever Allah sends astray, for him there is no guide. }  Surat Az-Zumar 39:23

Here Allah praises His Book, the Noble Qur’an, which was revealed to His noble Messenger.

Allah says, { Allah has sent down the Best Statement, a Book, its parts resembling each other (and) oft-repeated. }

Mujahid said, “This means that the entire Quran’s parts resemble each other and are oft-repeated.”

Qatadah said, “One Ayah resembles another and one letter resembles another.”

Ad-Dahhak said, “It is oft-repeated so that people will understand what their Lord tells them.”

`Ikrimah and Al-Hasan said, “There may be an Ayah in one Surah, and another Ayah in another Surah that resembles it.”

Sa`id bin Jubayr narrated from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him: “Oft-repeated means that parts of the Qur’an resemble one another and repeat one another.” Some of the scholars said that it was narrated from Sufyan bin `Uyaynah that

{ its parts resembling each other (and) oft-repeated. } means that some passages of the Qur’an may sometimes refer to one thing, so they resemble one another, and sometimes they mention a thing and its opposite. Such as when the believers then the disbelievers are mentioned, or when Paradise then Hell are described, and so on, and this is the meaning of oft-repeated.

Examples include the Ayat:

{ Verily, the most righteous will be in delight; and verily, the most wicked will be in the blazing Fire (Hell). } Al-Infitaar 82:13-14

{ Nay! Truly, the Record of the most wicked is (preserved) in Sijjin } until { Nay! Verily, the Record of the most righteous is (preserved) in `Illiyyin}  Al-Mutaffifin 83: 7-18

{ This is a Reminder. And verily, for those who have Taqwa is a good final return (Paradise) } until { This is so! And for those who transgress, there will be an evil final return (Fire). }  Saad 38:49-55.

And there are other similar passages. All of this has to do with it being oft-repeated, i.e., when two meanings are referred to. But when a passage is about one thing, with some parts of it resembling others, this is “its parts resembling each other.” This is not the same as the Mutashabihat* mentioned in the Ayah 3:7 that refers to something else altogether:

{ In it are Ayat that are entirely clear, they are the foundations of the Book; others not entirely clear }  Al-Imran 3:7

*Mutashabih verses are allegorical verses in the Qur’an, consistent in themselves and although obscure in meaning, cannot be questioned and their true meanings cannot be pursued. The true meaning is known only to Allah.

{ The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it. Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah. } means, this is the description of the righteous, when they hear the Words of the Compeller, the Protector, the Almighty, the Oft-Forgiving because they understand the promises and warnings contained therein. The frightening words and threats make their skin shiver from fear.

{ Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah. } because of their hope for His mercy and kindness. They are unlike others, the wicked, immoral sinners, in a number of ways: First, They listen to the recitation of the Ayat of the Qur’an, while those (sinners) listen to poetic verse recited by female singers. Second, When the Ayat of Ar-Rahman are recited to them, they fall down in prostration weeping, with the proper attitude of fear, hope, love, understanding and knowledge, as Allah says:

{ The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Ayat are recited unto them, they increase their faith; and they put their trust in their Lord; Who perform the Salah and spend out of that We have provided them. It is they who are the believers in it. For them are grades of dignity with their Lord, and forgiveness and a generous provision (i.e., Paradise). }   At-Tawbah 8:2-4

{ And those who, when they are reminded of the Ayat of their Lord, fall not on them (as if they were) deaf and blind }  Al-Furqan 25:73.

When they hear the Ayat of Allah, they are not too busy to pay attention to them; they listen to them and understand their meanings. So they act upon them and prostrate when they hear them, out of understanding, not out of ignorance and blind following of others. Third, They adhere to the correct etiquette when they listen to them. As the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, used to do when they listened to the words of Allah recited by the Messenger of Allah . Their skin Would shiver, and their hearts would soften to the remembrance of Allah. They did not shout or do other actions that are not natural; on the contrary, they would sit quietly with the proper attitude of fear, in an unparalleled fashion. they attained the victory of praise from their Lord in this world and the Hereafter.

`Abdur-Razzaq said, “Ma`mar told us that Qatadah, may Allah have mercy on him, recited, { The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it. Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah. } and said, ‘This is the characteristic of the friends of Allah; Allah has described them in this manner, saying that their skin shivers, their eyes weep and their hearts find rest to the remembrance of Allah. He did not say that they lose their minds and swoon; that is the characteristic of the followers of innovation, and that comes from the Shaytan.'”

Allah’s saying, { That is the guidance of Allah. He guides therewith whom He wills; }, means, this is the characteristic of those whom Allah has guided, and anyone who does anything different is one of those whom Allah has sent astray.

{ and whomever Allah sends astray, for him there is no guide. }

[Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surat Az-Zumar 39:23]

What is to be said at the time of sleeping

 

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Al-Bara’ bin `Azib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

“Whenever Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) went to bed, he would lie down on his right side and recite:Allahumma aslamtu nafsi ilaika, wa wajjahtu wajhi ilaika, wa fawwadtu amri ilaika, wa ‘alja’tu zahri ilaika, raghbatan wa rahbatan ilaika, la malja’a wa la manja illa ilaika. Amantu bikitabikalladhi anzalta, wa nabiyyikalladhi arsalta [Translation: O Allah! I have submitted myself to You, I have turned my face to You, committed my affairs to You, and depend on You for protection out of desire for You and out of fear of You (expecting Your reward and fearing Your punishment). There is no refuge and no place of safety from You but with You. I believed in the Book You have revealed, and in the Prophet You have sent” (i.e., Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)).]”  [Al-Bukhari].

In another report, the same narrator said:

Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) directed me thus: “Whenever you go to bed, perform Wudoo as you do for Salat then (before sleeping) recite: ‘O Allah! I have submitted myself to You, I have turned myself to You, committed my affairs to You and sought Your refuge for protection out of desire for You and fear of You (expecting Your reward and fearing Your punishment). There is no refuge and no place of safety from You but with You. I believe in the Book You have revealed and in the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) You have sent.’ Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) added: “If anyone recites these words and dies during the night, he will die on the true Deen, and if he remains alive until the morning, he will obtain good. And make this supplication your last words (before sleeping).”  [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:

Before going to bed, a believer revives his commitment to Faith, Islam and Allah by reciting this prayer of Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). Through this practice, every night he is able to remember Allah and His Commandments amidst the activities of the day time.

[Riyad as-Saliheen, Etiquette of Sleeping, Lying, and Sitting, etc., Chapter 127, Hadiths 815-816]