Desirable acts on the day of Eid

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The Sunnahs that the Muslim should observe on the day of Eid are as follows:

1 – Doing ghusl before going out to the prayer.

It was narrated in a sahih hadeeth in al-Muwatta’ and elsewhere that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to do ghusl on the day of al-Fitr before going out to the prayer-place in the morning. Al-Muwatta’ 428.

Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said that the Muslims were unanimously agreed that it is mustahabb (recommended) to do ghusl for Eid prayer. The reason why it is mustahabb is the same reason as that for doing ghusl before Jumu’ah and other public gatherings. Rather on Eid the reason is even stronger.

2 – Eating before going out to pray on Eid al-Fitr and after the prayer on Eid al-Adha:

Part of the etiquette is not to go out to pray on Eid al-Fitr until one has eaten some dates, because of the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari from Anas ibn Maalik, who said that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used not to go out on the morning of Eid al-Fitr until he had eaten some dates… of which he would eat an odd number. Al-Bukhaari, 953.

It is mustahabb to eat before going out to emphasize the fact that it is forbidden to fast on that day and to demonstrate that the fast has ended.

Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him) suggested that the reason for that was so as to ward off the possibility of adding to the fast, and to hasten to obey the command of Allaah. Al-Fath, 2/446

Whoever does not have any dates may break his fast with anything that is permissible.

3 – Takbeer on the day of Eid

This is one of the greatest Sunnahs on the day of Eid because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him” [al-Baqarah 2:185]

It was narrated that al-Waleed ibn Muslim said: I asked al-Awzaa’i and Maalik ibn Anas about saying Takbeer out loud on the two Eids. They said, Yes, ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar used to say it out loud on the day of al-Fitr until the imam came out (to lead the prayers).

It was narrated in a sahih report that ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulami said, “They emphasized it more on the day of al-Fitr than the day of al-Adha.”. Wakee’ said, this refers to the takbeer. See Irwa’ al-Ghaleel, 3/122/

Al-Daaraqutni and others narrated that on the morning of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, Ibn ‘Umar would strive hard in reciting takbeer until he came to the prayer place, then he would recite takbeer until the imam came out.

Saying takbeer when coming out of one’s house to the prayer place and until the imam came out was something that was well known among the salaf (early generations). This has been narrated by a number of scholars such as Ibn Abi Shaybah, ‘Abd a l-Razzaaq and al-Firyaabi in Ahkaam al-Eidayn from a group of the salaf. For example, Naafi’ ibn Jubayr used to recite takbeer and was astonished that the people did not do so, and he said, “Why do you not recite takbeer?”

Ibn Shihaab al-Zuhri (may Allaah have mercy on him) used to say, “The people used to recite takbeer from the time they came out of their houses until the imam came in.”

The time for takbeer on Eid al-Fitr starts from the night before Eid until the imam enters to lead the Eid prayer.

Description of the takbeer:

It was narrated in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah with a saheeh isnaad from Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) that he used to recite takbeer during the days of tashreeq:

Allahu akbar, Allahu akbar, laa ilaaha ill-Allah, wa Allahu akbar, Allah akbar, wa Lillaah il-hamd (Allaah is Most Great, Allaah is most Great, there is no god but Allaah, Allaah is Most great, Allaah is most great, and to Allaah be praise).

It was also narrated elsewhere by Ibn Abi Shaybah with the same isnad, but with the phrase “Allahu akbar” repeated three times.

4 – Offering congratulations

The etiquette of Eid also includes the congratulations and good wishes exchanged by people, no matter what the wording, such as saying to one another Taqabbala Allaah minna wa minkum (May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you” or “Eid mubaarak” and other permissible expressions of congratulations.

It was narrated that Jubayr ibn Nufayr said: When the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) met one another on the day of Eid, they would say to one another, “May Allaah accept (good deeds) from us and from you.”

Offering congratulations was something that was well known among the Sahaabah, and scholars such as Imam Ahmad and others allowed it. There is evidence which suggests that it is prescribed to offer congratulations and good wishes on special occasions, and that the Sahaabah congratulated one another when good things happened, such as when Allaah accepted the repentance of a man, they went and congratulated him for that, and so on.

Undoubtedly these congratulations are among the noble characteristics among the Muslims.

The least that may be said concerning the subject of congratulations is that you should return the greetings of those who congratulate you on Eid, and keep quiet if others keep quiet, as Imam Ahmad (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: If anyone congratulates you, then respond, otherwise do not initiate it.

5 – Adorning oneself on the occasion of Eid.

It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that ‘Umar took a brocade cloak that was for sale in the market and brought it to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, buy this and adorn yourself with it for Eid and for receiving the delegations.” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to him, “Rather this is the dress of one who has no share (of piety or of reward in the Hereafter)…” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 948.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) agreed with ‘Umar on the idea of adorning oneself for Eid, but he denounced him for choosing this cloak because it was made of silk.

It was narrated that Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) had a cloak which he would wear on the two Eids and on Fridays. Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah, 1756,

Al-Bayhaqi narrated with a saheeh isnaad that Ibn ‘Umar used to wear his best clothes on Eid.

So a man should wear the best clothes that he has when going out for Eid.

With regard to women, they should avoid adorning themselves when they go out for Eid, because they are forbidden to show off their adornments to non-mahram men. It is also haraam for a woman who wants to go out to put on perfume or to expose men to temptation, because they are only going out for the purpose of worship.

6 – Going to the prayer by one route and returning by another.

It was narrated that Jaabir ibn ‘Abd-Allaah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: On the day of Eid, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to vary his route. Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 986.

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One should not harm others

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It was related by Imam Ahmad and other compilers of hadith that the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “One should not harm others nor should one seek benefit for himself by causing harm to others.”

Du’a for when breaking the fast

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Invocations for breaking the fast may be the following:

Dhahaba al-thama’ wa abtalat al-‘urooq wa thabata al-ajr insha’Allah

The thirst is gone, the veins are moistened and the reward is confirmed, if Allah wills.

Reference: Abu Dawud 2/306 and others. See also Al- Albani, Sahihul-Jami’ As-Saghir 4/209.

Allaahumma ‘innee ‘as’aluka birahmatikal-latee wasi’at kulla shay’in ‘an taghfira lee

O Allah, I ask You by Your mercy, which encompasses all things, that You forgive me.

Reference: Ibn Majah 1/557 from a supplication of Abdullah bin ‘Amr. Al-Hafidh graded it as good in his checking of An-Nawawi’s Kitabul-‘Athkdr. See Sharhul- Athkar 4/342.

The Prophet was more modest than a virgin in her chamber

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Narrated Abu Sa`id:

The Prophet (ﷺ) was more shy (from Haya’: pious shyness from committing religious indiscretions) than a veiled virgin girl. (Sahih al-Bukhari 6119)

Narrated Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri:

The Prophet (ﷺ) was shyer than a virgin in her separate room. And if he saw a thing which he disliked, we would recognize that (feeling) in his face. (Sahih al-Bukhari 6102)

Abu Sa’id said, “The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, had more modesty  than a virgin in her tent. When he disliked something, that could be seen in  his face.” Graded Sahih by Al-Albani (Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 599)

Abu Sa’eed Khudari Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says that Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was more bashful than a virgin girl in her veil (purdah). When Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam did not like something, it could be seen on his face. (Because of his excessive Modesty he did not mention it). (Shama’il al-Muhammadiyyah/Tirmidhi, Eng., Book 48, Hadith 341)

Abu Sa’id Khudri reported that Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) was more modest than the virgin behind the curtain (or in the apartment), and when he disliked anything, we recognised  that from his face. (Sahih Muslim 2320)

It was narrated that Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri said:

“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was more modest than a virgin in her chamber. If he disliked something, that could be seen in his face.” Graded Sahih by Al-Albani (Sunan Ibn Majah, Eng. Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4180)

The prohibition of baseless suspicion

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Allah the Exalted forbids His faithful servants from being suspicious, which includes having doubts and suspicions about the conduct of one’s family, relatives and other people in general. Therefore, Muslims are to avoid suspicion without foundation.

The Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “Never think ill of the word that comes out of your believing brother’s mouth, as long as you can find a good excuse for it.”

Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that Allah’s Messenger said: “Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tales; do not spy on one another; do not look for other’s faults; do not be jealous of one another; do not envy one another; do not hate one another, and do not desert (shun) one another. And O Allah’s servants! Be brothers!” The Two Sahihs and Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith.

Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said, “Do not shun each other; do not ignore one another; do not hate one another, and do not envy one another, and be brothers, O servants of Allah. No Muslim is allowed to shun his brother for more than three days.” Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith, who considered it Sahih.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ ۖ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا ۚ أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion; indeed some suspicion is sin. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it. And have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, Most Merciful.

Quran 49:12

Allah said, “And spy not”, on each other. Tajassus, usually harbors ill intentions, and the spy is called a Jasus. As for Tahassus (inquiring), it is usually done for a good reason. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said that Prophet Ya`qub said, “O my sons! Go you and inquire (Tahassasu) about Yusuf and his brother, and never give up hope of Allah’s mercy.” (12:87)

Both of these terms, Tajassus and Tahassus could have evil connotations. In the Sahih it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said, “Neither commit Tajassus nor Tahassus nor hate each other nor commit Tadabur. And be brothers, O servants of Allah.”

Al-Awza`i said, “Tajassus means, to search for something, while Tahassus means, listening to people when they are talking without their permission, or eavesdropping at their doors. Tadabur refers to shunning each other.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement.

Allah the Exalted said about backbiting; “neither backbite one another”, thus prohibiting it, which was explained in a Hadith collected by Abu Dawud that Abu Hurayrah said, “It was asked, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! What is backbiting?’ He said, ‘Mentioning about your brother in a manner that he dislikes.’ He was asked, ‘What if my brother was as I mentioned?’ He said, ‘If he was as you mentioned, you will have committed backbiting. But if he was not as you say about him, you will have falsely accused him’.” At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said Hasan Sahih.

Backbiting was sternly warned against, and this is why Allah the Exalted and Most Blessed compared it to eating the flesh of a dead human being:

“Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it.”

Just as you hate eating the flesh of a dead person, on account of your nature; so hate backbiting, on account of your religion. The latter carries a punishment that is worse than the former. This Ayah seeks to discourage people from backbiting and warns against it. The Prophet used these words to discourage taking back a gift that one gives to someone, “He is just like the dog that eats its vomit.” after saying, “Ours is not an evil parable.”

Using various chains of narration, the Sahihs and Musnads record that the Prophet said during the Farewell Hajj: “Verily, your blood, wealth and honor are as sacred among you as the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours.” Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
“All of the Muslim is sacred to the Muslim, his wealth, honor and his blood. It is evil enough for someone to belittle his Muslim brother.” At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith and said Hasan Gharib.

Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la recorded that a cousin of Abu Hurayrah said, “Maiz came to the Messenger of Allah and said, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! I have committed adultery,’ and the Messenger turned away from him until Maiz repeated his statement four times. The fifth time, the Prophet asked him, ‘Have you committed adultery?’ Maiz said, ‘Yes.’

The Prophet asked, ‘Do you know what adultery means’ Ma`iz said, ‘Yes. I have illegally done with her what a husband legally does with his wife.’ The Prophet said, ‘What do you seek to accomplish by this statement?’ Maiz said, ‘I intend that you purify me.’

The Prophet asked, ‘Have you gone into her just as the stick goes into the kohl container and the rope goes into the well)?’ Ma`iz said, ‘Yes, O Allah’s Messenger!’ The Prophet commanded that Maiz be stoned to death and his order was carried out. The Prophet heard two men saying to one another, ‘Have you not seen the man who had Allah cover his secret, but his heart could not let him rest until he was stoned to death, just as the dog is stoned?’

The Prophet continued on and when he passed by the corpse of a donkey, he asked, ‘Where are so-and-so? Dismount and eat from this donkey.’ They said, ‘May Allah forgive you, O Allah’s Messenger! Would anyone eat this meat?’ The Prophet said; ‘The backbiting you committed against your brother is worse as a meal than this meal. By He in Whose Hand is my soul! He is now swimming in the rivers of Paradise.'” This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration.

Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah when a rotten odor was carried by the wind. The Messenger of Allah said, ‘Do you know what this odor is? It is the odor of those who backbite people.'”

EVIL is the name of wickedness after having faith

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Allah the Exalted forbids scoffing at people, which implies humiliating and belittling them. In the Sahih, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said, “Arrogance is refusing the truth and belittling people.” And in another version, “And despising people.”

It is forbidden to scoff at and belittle people, for the injured party could be more honored and dearer to Allah the Exalted than those who ridicule and belittle them. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَوْمٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَىٰ أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْرًا مِّنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاءٌ مِّن نِّسَاءٍ عَسَىٰ أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْرًا مِّنْهُنَّ

O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at (i.e. ridicule) another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former.

The above statements from the verse states the prohibition for men and then women.

The statement of Allah the Exalted,

ۖ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ

Nor defame yourselves

This statement of Allah forbids defaming each other. He among men who is a slanderer, and a backbiter, is cursed and condemned as Allah states: { Woe to every Humazah, Lumazah } (104:1)

Hamz is defamation by action, while Lamz is [defamation] by words.

Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, { Hammaz (defaming), going about with slander. } (68:11) meaning, he belittles and defames people, transgressing and spreading slander among them, which is the Lamz that uses words as its tool.

Allah’s statement here, { Nor defame yourselves, } just as He said in another Ayah, { Nor kill yourselves } (4:29), meaning, nor kill one another.

`Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that the Ayah, { Nor defame yourselves, } means, none of you should defame each other, while,

وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ

Nor insult one another by nicknames

means, ‘you should not address people by nicknames that people dislike.’

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Jabirah bin Ad-Dahhak said, “This Ayah was revealed about us, Banu Salamah; When the Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, every man among us had two or three nicknames. When the Prophet called a man by one of these nicknames, people would say, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! He hates that nickname.’ Then this Ayah, { nor insult one another by nicknames. } was revealed.” Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.

The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored,

بِئْسَ الِاسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ

  Evil is the name of wickedness after faith

This means the names and descriptions of wickedness are evil; meaning, ‘to use the nicknames that were used by the people of Jahiliyyah, after you embraced Islam and understood it.’

وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

And whosoever does not repent (from this sin), then such are indeed wrongdoers.

Reference: Tafsir ibn Kathir: Surah Al-Hujurat 49:11

 

What is to be said at the time of sleeping

 

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Al-Bara’ bin `Azib (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

“Whenever Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) went to bed, he would lie down on his right side and recite:Allahumma aslamtu nafsi ilaika, wa wajjahtu wajhi ilaika, wa fawwadtu amri ilaika, wa ‘alja’tu zahri ilaika, raghbatan wa rahbatan ilaika, la malja’a wa la manja illa ilaika. Amantu bikitabikalladhi anzalta, wa nabiyyikalladhi arsalta [Translation: O Allah! I have submitted myself to You, I have turned my face to You, committed my affairs to You, and depend on You for protection out of desire for You and out of fear of You (expecting Your reward and fearing Your punishment). There is no refuge and no place of safety from You but with You. I believed in the Book You have revealed, and in the Prophet You have sent” (i.e., Muhammad (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam)).]”  [Al-Bukhari].

In another report, the same narrator said:

Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) directed me thus: “Whenever you go to bed, perform Wudoo as you do for Salat then (before sleeping) recite: ‘O Allah! I have submitted myself to You, I have turned myself to You, committed my affairs to You and sought Your refuge for protection out of desire for You and fear of You (expecting Your reward and fearing Your punishment). There is no refuge and no place of safety from You but with You. I believe in the Book You have revealed and in the Prophet (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) You have sent.’ Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam) added: “If anyone recites these words and dies during the night, he will die on the true Deen, and if he remains alive until the morning, he will obtain good. And make this supplication your last words (before sleeping).”  [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Commentary:

Before going to bed, a believer revives his commitment to Faith, Islam and Allah by reciting this prayer of Messenger of Allah (sallallaahu ’alayhi wa sallam). Through this practice, every night he is able to remember Allah and His Commandments amidst the activities of the day time.

[Riyad as-Saliheen, Etiquette of Sleeping, Lying, and Sitting, etc., Chapter 127, Hadiths 815-816]

When dealing with the Jews and Christians, do not argue with them unless it is in the politest manner, except for those of them who do wrong

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{  And argue not with the People of the Scripture, except with that which is better—except with such of them as do wrong; and say (to them): “We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our God and your God is One, and to Him we have submitted.  }   Surat Al-Ankabut 29:46

What is meant here is that anyone who wants to find out about religion from them should argue with them in a manner that is better, as this will be more effective.

Allah says: { Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching… } (An-Nahl 16:125)

And Allah said to Musa and Harun when he sent them to Fir’awn (Pharaoh): { And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear. } (Ta-Ha 20:44)

Allah says here, { except with such of them as do wrong; } meaning, those who turn away from the truth, turning a blind eye to clear evidence, being stubborn and arrogant. In this case, you should progress from debate to combat, fighting them in such a way as to deter them from committing aggression against you. Allah says:

Allah says, { Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance that mankind may keep up justice. And We brought forth iron wherein is mighty power } until { Verily, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty } (Al-Hadid 57:25). Jabir said: “We were commanded to strike with the sword whoever opposes the Book of Allah.”

And His saying: { and say (to them): “We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; } means, ‘if they tell you something which you do not know to be true or false, say to them: We do not hasten to say it is a lie, because it may be true, and we do not hasten to say it is true because it may be false. We believe in it in general, under the condition that it has been revealed and has not been altered or deliberately misinterpreted.’

Imam Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The People of the Book used to read the Tawrah (Torah) in Hebrew and explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. The Messenger of Allah said: ‘Do not believe the People of the Book and do not deny them. Say: “We believe in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to you. Our God and your God is One, and to Him we have submitted.‘”

This Hadith was narrated only by Al-Bukhari. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said: “How can you ask the People of the Book about anything, when your Book that was revealed to the Messenger of Allah is more recent, you read it pure and uncontaminated, it tells you that the People of the Book altered and changed the Book, that they write the Book with their own hands and then say, ‘This is from Allah,’ to purchase with it a small price. Should not the knowledge that you have, prevent you from asking them. No, by Allah, we have never seen any of them asking you about what was sent down to you.”

Al-Bukhari recorded that Humayd bin `Abdur-Rahman heard Mu`awiyah talking to a group of Quraysh in Al-Madinah. He mentioned Ka`b Al-Ahbar, and said: “He was one of the most truthful of those who narrated from the People of the Book, even though we found that some of what he said might be lies.” I say, this means that some of what he said could be classified linguistically as lies, but he did not intend to lie, because he was narrating from manuscripts which he thought were good, but they contained fabricated material, because they did not have people who were so conscientious in memorizing the Scriptures by heart as the people of this great Ummah.

[Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surat Al-Ankabut 29:46]