Remind yourself of all the favors which Allah has conferred upon you

[throughbitsnpcs] look to those below you

Abu Huraira reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

“Look at those who stand at a lower level than you but don’t look at those who stand at a higher level than you, for this would make the favors (conferred upon you by Allah) insignificant (in your eyes).” Abu Mu’awiya said: Upon you.
[Sahih Muslim Book 42, Hadith 7070]

Eid Al-Fitr: The salah and celebration

eid al fitr

The celebration of Eid ul-Fitr culminates a month of fasting wherein the faithful have spent their time praying and beseeching Allah for forgiveness and mercy. For many, Ramadan was not just an abstention from food and drink. Rather, it was an exercise in patience and discipline. Eid is the celebration for those who fasted and obeyed Allah’s rules and teachings. It is for those who spent the month of Ramadan in complete devotion to Allah. Eid is a time when the entire Muslim community comes together to share in each others joy and blessings and also to lessen the burden of those who may be suffering.

Since Eid al-Fitr is the day on which Muslims break their Ramadan fast, it is preferable to eat before going to the Eid prayer. It is a Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) to eat an odd number of dates before going to pray salat al-Eid.

Anas bin Malik narrated:

Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) never proceeded (for the prayer) on the Day of `Id-ul-Fitr unless he had eaten some dates. Anas also narrated: The Prophet (ﷺ) used to eat odd number of dates. [1] 

Abu Sa’eed al-Khundri narrated:
“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) prohibited two fasts: Fasting on the day of Eid-ul-Adha and on the day of Eid-ul-Fitr.” [2]

It is preferred to make ghusl (take a bath), wear one’s best clothes and, for men, to wear perfume before going to Salat al-Eid. Ibn al-Qayyim wrote: “The Prophet (ﷺ) used to wear his best clothes for the Eid prayers and he had clothes that he reserved for the two Eids and Jumuah.” 

Umm ‘Atiyya reported:

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) commanded us to bring out on’Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha young women, menstruating women and purdah-observing ladies, menstruating women kept back from prayer, but participated in goodness and supplication of the Muslims. I said: Messenger of Allah, one of us does not have an outer garment (to cover her face and body). He said: Let her sister cover her with her outer garment. [3]

Eid prayer is wajib. It consists of two Rakaat (units) with six or thirteen additional Takbirs. It must be offered in congregation. The prayer is followed by the Khutbah.

Ibn `Abbas narrated:

The Prophet (ﷺ) offered a two rak`at prayer on the Day of Id ul Fitr and he did not pray before or after it. Then he went towards women along with Bilal and ordered them to pay alms and so they started giving their earrings and necklaces (in charity). [4]

The Prophet (ﷺ) went out and offered a two rak`at prayer on the Day of `Id ul Fitr and did not offer any other prayer before or after it and at that time Bilal was accompanying him. [5]

‘Abdullah b. ‘Umar reported that (his father) ‘Umar b. Khattab asked Abu Waqid al-Laithi what the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to recite on ‘Id-ul-Adha and ‘Id-ul-Fitr. He said:

He used to recite in them: “Qaf. By the Glorious Qur’an” (Surah 1), “The Hour drew near, and the moon was rent asunder” (Surah 2). [6]
The Khutbah is part of the worship and listening to it is Sunnah. During the Khutbah, the Imam reminds the community about its responsibilities and obligations towards Allah, fellow Muslims and fellow human beings.

[1] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of the Two Eids, Chapter 4

[2] Jami-al-Tirimidhi, Chapter on Fasting, Vol. 2, Hadith No. 772

[2] Sahih Muslim, Book of Prayer-Two Eids, Chapter 1

[3] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of the Two Eids, Chapter 8

[4] Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book of the Two Eids, Chapter 26

[5] Sahih Muslim, Book of Prayer-Two Eids, Chapter 3

Zakat al-Fitr: How significant and how much?

zakat al fitr 2

Significance

The significant role played by Zakah in the circulation of wealth within the Islamic society is also played by the Sadaqah al-Fitr. However, in the case of Sadaqah al-Fitr, each individual is required to calculate how much charity is due from himself and his dependents and go into the community in order to find those who deserve such charity. Thus, Sadaqah al-Fitr plays a very important role in the development of the bonds of community. The rich are obliged to come in direct contact with the poor, and the poor are put in contact with the extremely poor. This contact between the various levels of society helps to build real bonds of brotherhood and love within the Islamic community and trains those who have, to be generous to those who do not have.

Conditions

Zakah al-Fitr is only Wajib for a particular period of time. If one misses the time period without a good reason, he has sinned and can not make it up. This form of charity becomes obligatory from sunset on the last day of fasting and remains obligatory until the beginning of Salah al-‘Eid’ (i.e. shortly after sunrise on the following day). However, it can be paid prior to the above mentioned period, as many of the Sahabah [companions of the Prophet ﷺ] used to pay Sadaqah al-Fitr a couple days before the `Eid. Nafi reported that the Prophet’s companion Ibn `Umar used to give it to those who would accept it and the people used to give it a day or two before the `Eid.[4] Ibn `Umar reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) order that it (Zakah al-Fitr) be given before people go to make the Salah (al-‘Eid). And Ibn `Abbas reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Whoever gives it before the Salah will have it accepted as Zakah, while he who gives it after the Salah (will not, for it will only be considered as) ordinary charity.” [5] Therefore, one who forgets to pay this Zakah al-Fitr on time should do so as soon as possible even though it will not be counted as Zakah al-Fitr.

Rate

The amount of Zakah is the same for everyone regardless of their different income brackets. The minimum amount is one Sa` (two handfuls) of food, grain or dried fruit for each member of the family. This calculation is based on Ibn `Umar’s report that the Prophet (peace be upon him) made Zakah al-Fitr compulsory and payable by a Sa` of dried dates or a Sa` of barley. The Sahabi, Abu Sa`id al-Khudri said, “In the Prophet’s time, we used to give it (Zakah al-Fitr) as a Sa` of food, dried dates, barley, raisins or dried cheese”. [6]

*A Prophetic sa’ ( صاع ) is not a weight measurement.  It was and still is a measurement of volume, similar to the size of a large salad bowl.  It is made up of four mudds, and a mudd ( مد ) is a smaller container, close to the size of a small salad bowl. To be precise, a Prophetic mudd in modern volume measurements is .75L (or 750mL), which means that a sa’ is three liters.

Note: In today’s most commonly used scale of measurement of commodities are in kilogram (Kg.), which in this case – one sa’ is approximately between 2.5 Kg t 3.0 Kg. In the middle east, there are ready-made packs of rice in 3.0  Kg/Pack of rice which are intended for individual payee of Zakat al-Fitr.


[4] Collected by al-Bukhari – Arabic/English, Vol. 2, p.339, no. 579

[5] Collected by ibn Majah – English Trans., Vol. 3, Book 8, Hadith 1827 – rated Hasan

[6] Collected by al-Bukhari – Arabic/English vol. 2, p. 340, no. 582

[7] article of Dr. Bilal Philips in Zakat al-Fitr

Zakat Al-Fitr: Its legality and purpose

 zakah al-fitr made compulsory

Meaning

Zakah al-Fitr is often referred to as Sadaqah al-Fitr. The word Fitr means the same as Iftar, breaking a fast and it comes from the same root word as Futur which means breakfast. Thus, Islamically, Zakah al-Fitr is the name given to charity which is distributed at the end of the fast of Ramadan.

Classification

Sadaqah al-Fitr is a duty which is Wajib (required) on every Muslim, whether male or female, minor or adult as long as he/she has the means to do so. The proof that this form of charity is compulsory can be found in the Sunnah whereby Ibn `Umar reported that the Prophet ﷺ made Zakah al-Fitr compulsory on every slave, freeman, male, female, young and old among the Muslims; one Sa` of dried dates or one Sa` of barley. [1] The head of the household may pay the required amount for the other members. Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said, “On behalf of our young and old, free men and slaves, we used to take out during Allah’s Messenger’s (peace be upon him) lifetime one Sa` of grain, cheese or raisins”. [2]

Purpose

The main purpose of Zakah al-Fitr is to provide those who fasted with the means of making up for their errors during the month of fasting. Zakah al-Fitr also provides the poor with a means with which they can celebrate the festival of breaking the fast (`Eid al-Fitr) along with the rest of the Muslims. Ibn Abbas reported, “The Prophet (peace be upon him) made Zakah al-Fitr compulsory so that those who fasted may be purified of their idle deeds and shameful talk (committed during Ramadan) and so that the poor may be fed. Whoever gives it before the Salat al-Eid will have it accepted as Zakah while he who gives it after the Salah has given (ordinary) Sadaqah.” [3] Hence, the goal of Sadaqah al-Fitr is the spiritual development of the Believers. By making them give up some of their wealth, the believers are taught the higher moral characteristics of generosity, compassion (sympathy for the unfortunate), gratitude to Allah and the righteousness. But, since Islam does not neglect man’s material need, part of the goal of Zakah al-Fitr is the economic well-being of the poorer members of society.


[1] Collected by Bukhari – Arabic/English, vol. 2, p. 339, no. 579
[2] Collected by Muslim – English transl. vol. 2, p. 469, no. 2155
[3] Collected by Abu Dawud – Eng. transl. vol. 2, p. 421, no. 1605 – rated Sahih by Shaikh Naser Al-Albani

[4] article of Dr. Bilal Philips in Zakat al-Fitr